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Non-process kernel

This approach is quite traditional, and views the OS kernel as a program whose execution is qualitatively different from a process's one. The kernel resides in its own region of memory, has its own stack for managing procedure calls, etc. When its services are requested, due to an interrupt, a trap or a system call from a process, it gains CPU control and operates a context or a process switch depending on the scheduling policy. The key point in this scenario is that the concept of process does not apply to the kernel, which operates in its own privileged mode.

Franco Callari